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# Statistics Online Exam Help Answers

Q1. A sample is selected from a population with m = 80, and a treatment is administered to the sample. If the sample variance is s^{2} = 20, which set of sample characteristics is most likely to lead to a decision that there is a significant treatment effect?

- M = 85 for a sample of n = 25
- M = 85 for a sample of n = 100
- M = 90 for a sample of n = 25
- M = 90 for a sample of n = 100

Q2. If a researcher reports a t statistic with df = 18, how many individual subjects participated in the experiment?

- n = 17
- n = 18
- n = 19
- cannot be determined from the information given

Q3. What t values define the critical region for a regular two-tailed test using a sample of n = 25 scores and an alpha level of .05?

- t = ±1.711
- t = ±1.708
- t = ±2.064
- t = ±2.060

Q4. A sample of n = 25 scores produces a t statistic of t = -2.06. If the researcher is using a two-tailed test with a = .05, the correct statistical decision is ____.

- The researcher can reject the null hypothesis with a = .05 but not with a = .01.
- The researcher can reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01.
- The researcher must fail to reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01.
- It is impossible to make a decision about H
_{0}without more information.

Q5. Two samples from the same population both have n = 10 scores with M = 45. If t statistics are computed for these two samples, then ____.

- the two t statistics will be identical
- the sample with the larger variance will produce the larger t statistic
- the sample with the smaller variance will produce the larger t statistic
- There is no way to predict the relationship between the two t statistics.

Q6. Which of the following research situations is most likely to use an independent-measures design?

- Evaluate the effectiveness of a diet program by measuring how much weight is lost during 4 weeks of dieting.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of a cholesterol medication by comparing cholesterol levels before and after the medication.
- Evaluate the difference in verbal skills between 3-year-old girls and 3-year-old boys.
- Evaluate the development of verbal skills between age 2 and age 3 for a sample of girls.

Q7. What is the estimated standard error for the independent-measures t statistic for the following two samples? Sample 1: n = 4 with SS = 100. Sample 2: n = 8 with SS = 140.

- 3
- 9
- 24
- 24
^{2}

Q8. Which of the following sets of sample data would produce the largest value for an independent-measures t statistic. Assume that n = 10 for all samples. Note: You should not need to do any serious calculations to answer this question

- First sample: M = 30 and SS = 10. Second Sample: M = 35 and SS = 10
- First sample: M = 30 and SS = 10. Second Sample: M = 50 and SS = 10
- First sample: M = 30 and SS = 50. Second Sample: M = 35 and SS = 50
- First sample: M = 30 and SS = 50. Second Sample: M = 50 and SS = 50

Q9. An independent-measures research study uses two samples, each with n = 10, to compare two treatments. If the results are evaluated with a t statistic using a two-tailed test with a = .05, then the critical region would have boundaries of ____.

- t = ±2.262
- t = ±2.101
- t = ±2.093
- t = ±2.086

Q10. An independent-measures research study uses two samples, each with n = 8 participants. If the data produce a t statistic of t = 2.10, then which of the following is the correct decision for a two-tailed hypothesis test?

- Reject the null hypothesis with a = .05 but fail to reject with a = .01.
- Reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01.
- Fail to reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01.
- cannot answer without additional information

Q11. An independent-measures experiment uses two samples with n = 7 in each to compare two experimental treatments. The t statistic from this experiment will have degrees of freedom equal to ____.

- 12
- 6
- 13
- 9

Q12. For which of the following situations would a repeated-measures research design be appropriate?

- comparing verbal skills for girls versus boys at age 3
- comparing pain tolerance before and after taking a new pain medication
- comparing self-esteem for students who participate in school athletics versus those who do not
- comparing problem solving skills for science majors versus art majors at a college

Q13. A researcher reports a t statistic with df = 24 from a repeated-measures research study. How many subjects participated in the study?

- n = 11
- n = 13
- n = 23
- n = 25

Q14. With a = .05 and a sample of n = 12 subjects in a repeated-measures experiment, the two-tailed critical region for the t statistic has boundaries of ____.

- t = ±2.228
- t = ±1.812
- t = ±1.796
- t = ±2.201

Q15. A major concern with a repeated-measures study is the possibility that ____.

- you will obtain negative values for the difference scores
- the results will be influenced by order effects
- the mean difference is due to individual differences rather than treatment differences
- All of the other options are major concerns.

Q16. A researcher plans to conduct a research study comparing two treatment conditions with a total of 20 participants. Which of the following designs would produce 20 scores in each treatment?

- An independent-measures design
- A repeated-measures design
- A matched-subjects design
- All of the other options would produce 20 scores in each treatment.

Q17. The following data were obtained from a repeated-measures research study. What is the value of MD for these data?

- 3
- 3.5
- 4
- 4.5

Q18. A matched-subjects study and an independent-measures study both produced a t statistic with df = 10. How many individuals participated in each study?

- 11 for matched-subjects and 11 for independent-measures
- 11 for matched-subjects and 12 for independent-measures
- 12 for matched-subjects and 12 for independent-measures
- 22 for matched-subjects and 12 for independent-measures

Q19. A repeated-measures study comparing two treatments with a sample of n = 4 participants produces MD = 3 with SS = 48 for the set of difference scores. What is the repeated-measures t statistic for these data?

- 3/3 = 1.73
- 3/2 = 1.50
- 3/4 = 0.75
- 3/16 = 0.19

Q20. A research report describing the results from a repeated-measures study states that the data show no significant difference between the two treatments, t(10) = 1.65, p > .05. Based on this report, how many individuals participated in the research study?

- 9
- 10
- 11
- 12

Q21. An independent-measures study has one sample with n = 6 and a second sample with n = 8 to compare two experimental treatments. What is the df value for the t statistic for this study?

- 7
- 12
- 13
- 14

Q22. An independent-measures study comparing two treatment conditions produces a t statistic with df = 18. If the two samples are the same size, how many participants were in each of the samples?

- 9
- 10
- 19
- 20

Q23. An independent-measures research study uses two samples, each with n = 15 participants. If the data produce a t statistic of t = 2.760, which of the following is the correct decision for a two-tailed hypothesis test?

- Reject the null hypothesis with α = .05 but fail to reject with α = .01
- Reject the null hypothesis with either α = .05 or α = .01
- Fail to reject the null hypothesis with either α = .05 or α = .01
- Cannot answer without additional information

Q24. If all other factors are held constant, increasing the sample size will ____.

- increase the standard error
- decrease the width of the confidence interval
- increase the width of the confidence interval
- None of the other 3 choices is correct.

Q25. Which combination of factors would definitely *reduce* the width of a confidence interval?

- use a larger sample and increase the level of confidence
- use a smaller sample and increase the level of confidence
- use a larger sample and decrease the level of confidence
- use a smaller sample and decrease the level of confidence

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