Four Classes of Biochemistry Assignment Help
Carbohydrates: These are made of monomers of mono saccharides (saccharides – compounds with sugar); CHO group and is classified into 3 subgroups as mono saccharides, oligo saccharides and poly saccharides.
Mono saccharide is single saccharide unit that cannot be hydrolyzed. They are either aldoses or ketoses e.g. Glucose is a universal sugar and Fructoseis the fruit sugar.
Oligosaccharides are di, tri and large oligosaccharides. Disaccharide is formed by condensation between 2 monosaccharide monomers bound by glycosidic bond and hydrolyses to monosaccharide e.g. Maltose (glucose + glucose), Lactose (glucose + galactose) and sucrose (glucose + fructose). Trisaccharides have 3 monomeric monosaccharide e.g. Raffinose in plants hydrolyses to form glucose, fructose and galactose.
Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharide that are branched or unbranched. They are of 2 types: homo polysaccharides that consists only one type of monomeric monosachharide e.g. Starch, glycogen, cellulose and fructan; hetero polysaccharide has more than one type of monomeric monosaccharide e.g. agar, chitin.
Carbohydrate metabolism involves glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle that produces glucose and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy carriers for the cell.
Lipids: These are the esters of fatty acidand glycerol. They are of different types:
- Simple lipids have esters of fatty acid and alcohol e.g. fats, oils, waxes.
- Compound lipids have additional group with fatty acid esters and alcohol e.g. glycolipids, phospholipids.
- Derived lipids have an isoprenoid structure e.g. steroids, terpenes, and carotenoids.
Fatty acids are carboxylic acids of 4 carbon atoms with COOH group. Lipogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride synthesis and steroid biosynthesis maintain the lipid metabolism of the cell and the body of the organism.
Amino acids: The building blocks of proteins or polypeptides. There are 20 standard amino acids encoded by mRNA. Polypeptides are linked by peptide bonds, with carboxyl, amino group and side chain. Protein folding, synthesis and degradation maintains cellular protein metabolism.
Nucleic acids: Chromosome has strands of DNA that encloses genes. DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating component of the cell. Genetic information is stored and includes DNA, RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins. The monomers are nucleotides – adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and Uralic; have nitrogenous base, pentose sugar and a phosphate group. DNA replication, repair, transcription, regulation, RNA processing and translation retains the energy resource.
Cell signaling is a communication mechanism between cells to carry out any function.
The second messenger is cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine mono phosphate) that controls the enzyme activities of gene expression. Recent advances in this science involve the development of new technologies like electron microscopy, chromatography, X – ray crystallography and diffraction, NMR spectroscopy and radioisotope labeling.
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